Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. HTTP is a request/response protocol between clients and servers. The originating client, such as a web browser, spider, or other end-user tool, is referred to as the user agent. The destination server, which stores or creates resources such as HTML files and images, is called the origin server. In between the user agent and origin server may be several intermediaries, such as proxies, gateways, and tunnels. It is useful to remember that HTTP does not need TCP/IP. Indeed HTTP can be “implemented on top of any other protocol on the Internet, or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable transport; any protocol that provides such guarantees can be used.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Protocol for exchanging FILES over the Internet. FTP works in the same way as HTTP for transferring Web pages from a server to a user's browser and SMTP for transferring electronic mail across the Internet in that, like these technologies, FTP uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer. is most commonly used to download a file from a server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server (e.g., uploading a Web page file to a server).
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
SMTP is the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is the most popular protocol for transferring electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP is quite robust, but provides no facilities for Authentication of the sender or recipient; for encryption; or for attaching non-ASCII data. The most popular software for routing and managing SMTP mail is Send mail. Historically, this program has suffered from numerous Security Exploit's. Modern versions of Send mail, however, are robust, and support effective defenses against Spam and unauthorized Mail Relay use.
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is the predominant protocol used by computer clients and servers for managing the notes posted on Usenet newsgroups. NNTP replaced the original Usenet protocol, UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Protocol (UUCP) some time ago. NNTP servers manage the global network of collected Usenet newsgroups and include the server at your Internet access provider. An NNTP client is included as part of a Netscape, Internet Explorer, Opera, or other Web browser or you may use a separate client program called a newsreader.
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
Internet Relay Chat is a chat system developed by Jarkko Oikarinen in Finland in the late 1980s. IRC has become very popular as more people get connected to the Internet because it enables people connected anywhere on the Internet to join in live discussions. Unlike older chat systems, IRC is not limited to just two participants. To join an IRC discussion, you need an IRC client and Internet access. The IRC client is a program that runs on your computer and sends and receives messages to and from an IRC server. The IRC server, in turn, is responsible for making sure that all messages are broadcast to everyone participating in a discussion. There can be many discussions going on at once; each one is assigned a unique channel.